Article: Building Efficient Irrigation Systems, Strategies and Improved Agronomic Practices, Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. Jalgaon, India

By water4crops on

The wastewater from industries varies so greatly in both flow and pollutional strength. So, it is impossible to assign fixed values to their constituents. In general, industrial wastewaters may contain suspended, colloidal and dissolved (mineral and organic) solids. In addition, they may be either excessively acid or alkaline and may contain high or low concentrations of coloured matter. These wastes may contain inert, organic or toxic materials and possibly pathogenic bacteria. It may be necessary to pre-treat the wastes prior to release to the agriculture or municipal system.

“There is more to Jain Irrigation than irrigation,” because it has world class food processing facilities for dehydration of onion, vegetable and production of fruit purees, concentrates and pulp. These plants are ISO 9001 & HACCP certified and Meet International FDA statute requirements. Both the industries are separate and 105 tonnes of fruits & vegetables (onion) are processed daily. Large amount of water is used for washing, grading, peeling and processing. The annual average availability of treated waste water generated from fruit processing is 200000cu.m and from onion dehydration plant is about 150000cu.m. Our aim is to save single drop of water may be from industry or from agriculture. Water4Crops – They have defined certain objective to us in WP3. Taking this as an important task we have developed our laboratory and field trails as below;

Laboratory test/analysis:

a. We are playing active role in developing clog-free emitter for processed water from both onion and fruit processing industries. Testing protocol is developed for testing clogging resistance of emitters either to let pass or to prevent entry of solid particles of a given size, with a view to approach the minimum size of the internal aperture within emitter and further it helps in the selection of system filtration size. Different emitters are tested by passing treated water through it for cycle duration of 480 minutes for minimum 15 days. The lines are kept pressurized for 240 minutes and non-pressurized for 240 minutes. Six different varieties of emitters have been tested till today of both type pressure compensating (PC) and Non Pressure compensating (NPC). PC Emitters have shown effective results as compared with NPC. The clogging resistance of PC emitter is higher than that of NPC.

Emitter clogging setup

Emitter clogging setup

PC EMITTER – INLET FILTER

PC EMITTER – INLET FILTER

NPC EMITTER – INLET FILTER

NPC EMITTER – INLET FILTER

NPC EMITTER – FLOW PATH

NPC EMITTER – FLOW PATH

 

PC EMITTER – FLOW PATH

PC EMITTER – FLOW PATH

 

b. Water analysis is done to trace out (detect) the type of impurity responsible for clogging after every one month. List of parameters are analysed at our laboratory; pH (7-9), EC (1-3ms/cm), TDS (1000 – 4000 ppm), BOD (100-400) , COD (100-300), Carbonates & Bicarbonates (50-100), Chlorides(50-100), Sulphates(50-100), Sodium (100-400), Potassium(50-200) , Calcium (50-100), Magnesium(10-50), Arsenic(NIL), Iron (0.1-0.5), Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Pathogenic microbes, Nitrates, Physical impurities.

Field test/analysis:

Soil analysis is done to know the amount of nutrients present in the soil / also to know the soil borne diseases and other essential properties. This could help to select the fertilizer & pesticide dose/ Irrigation scheduling & other crop & farm treatments. The list of parameter tested in our laboratory are: Micro nutrient & Macro Nutrients, Sand(%), Silt(%), Clay(%), Bulk Density, Soil texture & Soil Microbes.

a. Experimental setup is design to fulfil the following objectives ;
Increase water use efficiency through efficient irrigation systems, strategies and improved agronomic practices. Trails are carried out on two different crops – Maize & Banana.

FULLY AUTOMATIC DRIP IRRIGATION MODEL1

FULLY AUTOMATIC DRIP IRRIGATION MODEL1

FILTRATION SETUP WITH CENTRALLY PLACED SOLENOID VALVES

FILTRATION SETUP WITH CENTRALLY PLACED SOLENOID VALVES

PUMPING UNIT WITH WATER METER ATTACHED WITH CONTROLLER

PUMPING UNIT WITH WATER METER ATTACHED WITH CONTROLLER

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAIZE CROP AFTER 15 DAYS

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAIZE CROP AFTER 15 DAYS

TOP VIEW SHOWING SYSTEM, MAIZE & BANANA CROP

TOP VIEW SHOWING SYSTEM, MAIZE & BANANA CROP

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAIZE AFTER 30 DAYS

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAIZE AFTER 30 DAYS

Three water sources (Fruit, Onion & Bore well) have been used to know the effect on drip system, crop as well as on soil. Trails are replicated five times to minimize the error and to achieve good results on two different crops Maize and Banana.

System Details:

Crop is responding well for all the water sources since from date (30/01/2014 – MAIZE & 15-02-2014 – BANANA) of sowing. But it is noticed that fruit water has good effect on maize than the fresh & onion water. The Plant height, Number of leaves, Vegetative Growth is found good in Fruit water under NPC dripper than that of PC.

System is responding well to fresh water followed by fruit. The frequency of cleaning sand filter and disc is more in case of onion than that of Fruit. After every 9000-10000 litre of fruit water we need to clean the sand as well as disc filter. In case of Onion filter cleaning is necessary after every 5000 to 6000 litre of water. Lateral & sub main flushing is done after every 15 days for both onion and fruit water.

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